INTERPRETATION OF THE CONVENTION REFUGEE DEFINITION IN THE CASE LAW

December 31, 2010

TABLE OF CONTENTS

MEMORANDUM

CHAPTER 1 - INTRODUCTION

  1. 1.1. FOREWORD
  2. 1.2. EXPLANATORY NOTES
  3. 1.3. CONVENTION REFUGEE DEFINITION
    1. 1.3.1. Immigration and Refugee Protection Act, s. 96 - meaning of "Convention refugee"
    2. 1.3.2. Immigration and Refugee Protection Act, Section 108(1) and (4) - cessation of refugee protection
    3. 1.3.3. Immigration and Refugee Protection Act, s. 98 - exclusion clauses
    4. 1.3.4. Schedule to the Immigration and Refugee Protection Act - exclusion clauses
  4. 1.4. GENERAL RULES OF INTERPRETATION
    1. 1.4.1. Surrogate Protection
    2. 1.4.2. Fear of Persecution For A Convention Reason
    3. 1.4.3. Two Presumptions At Play In Refugee Determination
    4. 1.4.4. State Complicity Not Required
    5. 1.4.5. Existence Of Fear Of Persecution
    6. 1.4.6. Use Of Underlying Anti-Discrimination Law In Interpreting Particular Social Group
    7. 1.4.7. Broad and general interpretation of political opinion
    8. 1.4.8. Examiner To Consider The Relevant Grounds
    9. 1.4.9. Perception Of Persecutor
    10. 1.4.10. Section 7 Of The Charter
    11. 1.4.11. All Elements Of The Definition Must Be Met
    12. 1.4.12. Personal Targeting Not Required
    13. 1.4.13. Standard Of Proof Is "Reasonable or Serious Possibility"
    14. 1.4.14. International Human Rights Instruments

CHAPTER 2 - COUNTRY OF PERSECUTION

  1. 2.1. COUNTRY OF NATIONALITY
    1. 2.1.1. Multiple Nationalities
    2. 2.1.2. Establishing Nationality
    3. 2.1.3. Right to Citizenship
      1. 2.1.3.1. Israel's Law of Return
    4. 2.1.4. Effectiveness of Nationality
    5. 2.1.5. Failure to Access Possible Protection in a Third Country
  2. 2.2. FORMER HABITUAL RESIDENCE - STATELESS PERSONS
    1. 2.2.1. Principles and Criteria for Establishing Country of Former Habitual Residence
    2. 2.2.2. Multiple Countries of Former Habitual Residence
    3. 2.2.3. Nature of Ties to the Country
    4. 2.2.4. Subsisting Well-Founded Fear of Persecution
    5. 2.2.5. Evidence of Persecution for a Convention Reason
    6. 2.2.6. State Protection

CHAPTER 3 - PERSECUTION

  1. 3.1. GENERALLY
    1. 3.1.1. Definition
      1. 3.1.1.1. Serious Harm
      2. 3.1.1.2. Repetition and Persistence
      3. 3.1.1.3. Nexus
      4. 3.1.1.4. Common Crime or Persecution?
      5. 3.1.1.5. Agent of Persecution
    2. 3.1.2. Cumulative Acts of Discrimination and/or Harassment
    3. 3.1.3. Forms of Persecution
      1. 3.1.3.1. Some Judicial Observations

CHAPTER 4 - GROUNDS OF PERSECUTION

  1. 4.1. GENERALLY
  2. 4.2. RACE
  3. 4.3. NATIONALITY
  4. 4.4. RELIGION
  5. 4.5. PARTICULAR SOCIAL GROUP
  6. 4.6. POLITICAL OPINION
  7. 4.7. VICTIMS OF CRIMINALITY AND NEXUS TO GROUNDS

CHAPTER 5 - WELL-FOUNDED FEAR

  1. 5.1. GENERALLY
  2. 5.2. TEST - STANDARD OF PROOF
  3. 5.3. SUBJECTIVE FEAR AND OBJECTIVE BASIS
    1. 5.3.1. Establishing the Subjective and Objective Elements
  4. 5.4. DELAY
    1. 5.4.2. Failure to seek protection in other countries
    2. 5.4.3. Delay in making a claim upon arrival in Canada
    3. 5.5. RE-AVAILMENT OF PROTECTION
  5. 5.6. SUR PLACE CLAIMS AND WELL-FOUNDED FEAR

CHAPTER 6 - STATE PROTECTION

  1. 6.1. INTRODUCTION - GENERAL PRINCIPLES
    1. 6.1.1. Surrogate Protection
    2. 6.1.2. Multiple Nationalities
    3. 6.1.3. Timing of Analysis
    4. 6.1.4. Unable or Unwilling - A Blurred Distinction - No Requirement for State Complicity
    5. 6.1.5. Presumptions
    6. 6.1.6. Nexus
    7. 6.1.7. Burden and Standard of Proof
    8. 6.1.8. Obligation to Approach the State
    9. 6.1.9. Rebutting the Presumption of Protection
    10. 6.1.10. More Than One Authority in the Country
    11. 6.1.11. Adequacy of Protection - Standard
    12. 6.1.12. Source of Protection
  2. 6.2. STATELESS CLAIMANTS
  3. 6.3. APPLICATION OF THE LAW TO SPECIFIC SITUATIONS

CHAPTER 7 - CHANGE OF CIRCUMSTANCES AND COMPELLING REASONS

  1. 7.1. CHANGE OF CIRCUMSTANCES
    1. 7.1.1. Standard of Proof and Criteria
    2. 7.1.2. Application
    3. 7.1.3. Reasons and Assessment of Evidence
    4. 7.1.4. Notice
    5. 7.1.5. Post-Hearing Evidence
  2. 7.2. COMPELLING REASONS
    1. 7.2.1. Applicability
    2. 7.2.2. Duty to Consider the "Compelling Reasons" Exception
    3. 7.2.3. Meaning of "Compelling Reasons"
    4. 7.2.4. Adequacy of Reasons for Decision
    5. 7.2.5. Level or Severity of Harm
    6. 7.2.6. Psychological After-Effects
    7. 7.2.7. Persecution of Others and Other Factors
  3. 7.3. Sur Place Claims
    1. 7.3.1. Claimant's Activities Abroad
    2. 7.3.2. Changes in Country Conditions or Claimant's Personal Circumstances

CHAPTER 8 - INTERNAL FLIGHT ALTERNATIVE (IFA)

  1. 8.1. GENERALLY
  2. 8.2. TWO-PRONGED TEST
  3. 8.3. NOTICE - BURDEN OF PROOF
  4. 8.4. STANDARD OF REVIEW
  5. 8.5. INTERPRETATION AND APPLICATION OF THE TWO-PRONGED TEST
    1. 8.5.1. Fear of Persecution
    2. 8.5.2. Reasonable in All the Circumstances

CHAPTER 9 - PARTICULAR SITUATIONS

  1. 9.1. Introduction
  2. 9.2. Civil War or Other Prevalent Conflict
    1. 9.2.1. Two Approaches:  Comparative and Non-Comparative
      1. 9.2.1.1. Background
      2. 9.2.1.2. The Non-Comparative Approach is the Legal and Preferred Test
  3. 9.3. Prosecution, or Persecution for a Convention Reason?
    1. 9.3.1. Limits to Acceptable Legislation and Enforcement
    2. 9.3.2. Laws of General Application
    3. 9.3.3. Policing Methods, National Security and Preservation of Social Order
    4. 9.3.4. Enforcement and Serious Possibility
    5. 9.3.5. Exit Laws
    6. 9.3.6. Military Service:  Conscientious Objection, Evasion, Desertion
    7. 9.3.7. One-Child Policy of China
    8. 9.3.8. Religious or Cultural Mores
      1. 9.3.8.1. Restrictions upon Women
      2. 9.3.8.2. Ahmadis from Pakistan
  4. 9.4. Indirect Persecution and Family Unity

CHAPTER 10 - EXCLUSION CLAUSES - ARTICLE 1E

  1. 10.1. Introduction
    1. 10.1.1. Ability to Return and Remain
    2. 10.1.2. Nature of the Residency Rights
    3. 10.1.3. Onus to Renew Status
    4. 10.1.4. Rights and Obligations of a National
    5. 10.1.5. Fear of Persecution and State Protection in the Article 1E Country

CHAPTER 11 - ARTICLE 1F

  1. 11.1. Introduction
  2. 11.2. ARTICLE 1F(a):  Crimes Against Peace, War Crimes and Crimes Against Humanity
    1. 11.2.1. Crimes Against Peace
    2. 11.2.2. War Crimes
    3. 11.2.3. Crimes Against Humanity
    4. 11.2.4. Balancing
    5. 11.2.5. Defences
      1. 11.2.5.1. Duress
      2. 11.2.5.2. Superior Orders
      3. 11.2.5.3. Military Necessity
      4. 11.2.5.4. Remorse
    6. 11.2.6. Complicity
      1. 11.2.6.1. Specific examples
    7. 11.2.7. Responsibility of Superiors
  3. 11.3. ARTICLE 1 F(b):  Serious Non-Political Crimes
    1. 11.3.1. Determination of whether a crime is serious
    2. 11.3.2. Determination of whether a crime is political
    3. 11.3.3. Prior to admission
    4. 11.3.4. Complicity
    5. 11.3.5. Balancing
    6. 11.3.6. Serious Reasons for Considering"
  4. 11.4. ARTICLE 1F(c):  Acts Contrary To The Purposes And Principles Of The United Nations
    1. 11.4.1. Balancing
    2. 11.4.2. Complicity
  5. 11.5. BURDEN AND STANDARD OF PROOF AND NOTICE
  6. 11.6. CONSIDERATION OF INCLUSION WHERE CLAIMANT IS EXCLUDED

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