Weighing Evidence

December 31, 2003

Printable version (PDF, 507 KB)

Table of Contents

MEMORANDUM

  1. INTRODUCTION
  2. GENERAL PRINCIPLES
    1. 2.1. Evidence
    2. 2.2. Relevant Provisions of the Immigration and Refugee Protection Act
    3. 2.3. Credible or Trustworthy Evidence
  3. ASSESSING EVIDENCE
    1. 3.1. Before/During the Hearing:
      1. 3.1.1. Determine which party has the Burden of Proof
      2. 3.1.2. Define the issues
    2. 3.2. During the Hearing:
      1. 3.2.1. Admissibility
        1. 3.2.1.1. Relevance
        2. 3.2.1.2. Other
      2. 3.2.2. Credibility
    3. 3.3. After the Hearing of Evidence and Submissions is Complete:
      1. 3.3.1. Assess Credibility
      2. 3.3.2. Reliability
      3. 3.3.3. Apply the Standard of Proof
      4. 3.3.4. Determine the Facts that have been established by the evidence as weighed
        1. 3.3.4.1. Benefit of the Doubt before the RPD
      5. 3.3.5. Identify the appropriate Standard of Proof for each legal issue
      6. 3.3.6. Apply the facts and standards of proof to the issues of the case
        1. 3.3.6.1. Presumptions
      7. 3.3.7. Render the Decision
  4. WHAT IT MEANS TO "WEIGH" EVIDENCE
  5. FACTORS TO CONSIDER IN WEIGHING EVIDENCE
    1. 5.1. General Principle
      1. 5.1.1. Some Factors That May be Considered
  6. APPLICATION TO SPECIFIC SITUATIONS
    1. 6.1. Viva Voce Evidence
      1. 6.1.1. Factors to Consider:
      2. 6.1.2. Adverse Inferences from the Failure to Testify or Call Evidence
      3. 6.1.3. Compellability of Witnesses
    2. 6.2. Self-Serving Evidence
      1. 6.2.1. Factors to Consider:
    3. 6.3. Hearsay Evidence
      1. 6.3.1. Factors to Consider:
    4. 6.4. Evidence of Children
      1. 6.4.1. Factors to Consider:
    5. 6.5. Evidence of Incompetents (Persons Suffering from Mental or Emotional Disorders)
      1. 6.5.1. Factors to Consider:
    6. 6.6. Speculation
    7. 6.7. Expert/Opinion Evidence
      1. 6.7.1. Factors to Consider:
    8. 6.8. Documentary Evidence
      1. 6.8.1. General Principles
      2. 6.8.2. Failure to refer to documentary evidence
      3. 6.8.3. No Obligation to Assess Adverse Documentary Evidence, Unless Directly Contradictory
      4. 6.8.4. Selective reliance("Picking and choosing")
      5. 6.8.5. "Considering all the evidence" not determinative of well-foundedness of fear
      6. 6.8.6. Formal Rules of Evidence Do Not Apply
      7. 6.8.7. Opportunity to cross-examine
      8. 6.8.8. Bias of Author
      9. 6.8.9. "Tone" of the document
      10. 6.8.10. POE Notes and other Minister's information
      11. 6.8.11. News reports and newspaper articles
      12. 6.8.12. Prior Inconsistent Statements or Information
      13. 6.8.13. Relevance of Documentary Evidence in Successor State Scenarios
      14. 6.8.14. Factors to Consider:
    9. 6.9. Videotape Evidence
      1. 6.9.1. Factors to Consider:
    10. 6.10. Teleconferencing and Videoconferencing
      1. 6.10.1. Teleconferencing
      2. 6.10.2. Factors to Consider
      3. 6.10.3. Videoconferencing
      4. 6.10.4. Factors to Consider
    11. 6.11. Foreign Law and Foreign Judgments with Particular Reference to Adoptions
      1. 6.11.1. Introduction
      2. 6.11.2. Terminology
      3. 6.11.3. Proof of Foreign Law
      4. 6.11.4. Declaratory Judgments and Deeds
      5. 6.11.5. Presumption of Validity under Foreign Law
      6. 6.11.6. Parent and Child Relationship Created by Operation of Foreign Law
      7. 6.11.7. Power of Attorney
      8. 6.11.8. Revocation of Adoption
      9. 6.11.9. Severing the Pre-Existing Legal Parent-Child Relationship
      10. 6.11.10. Public Policy
    12. 6.12. Foreign Judgments
      1. 6.12.1. Adoption
      2. 6.12.2. Divorce
      3. 6.12.3. Marriage
    13. 6.13. Foreign Law
      1. 6.13.1. Factors to Consider:
      2. 6.13.2. Date of the foreign legislation
      3. 6.13.3. Presumptions under foreign law
      4. 6.13.4. Expert Evidence
    14. 6.14. Judicial Notice
      1. 6.14.1. Judicial Notice and Specialized Knowledge in the RPD
    15. 6.15. Victim Impact Evidence
    16. 6.16. Acceptable Documentation (Identity)
    17. 6.17. Misrepresentation
      1. 6.17.1. Introduction
      2. 6.17.2. Possible Legal and Evidentiary Issues
      3. 6.17.3. Nature of the Misrepresentation
      4. 6.17.4. Humanitarian and Compassionate Considerations
    18. 6.18. Conclusive Findings of Fact
  7. STANDARDS AND BURDEN OF PROOF
    1. 7.1. Refugee Protection Division (RPD)
    2. 7.2. Immigration Appeal Division (IAD)
    3. 7.3. Immigration Division (ID)
  8. SECURITY EVIDENCE IN APPEALS
    1. 8.1. Introduction
    2. 8.2. Initiating the procedure
    3. 8.3. Types of information subject to non-disclosure
    4. 8.4 The rationale for protecting information
    5. 8.5. The member's decision
    6. 8.6. Duty of disclosure
    7. 8.7. Assessing the evidence
    8. 8.8. Onus of proof on minister
    9. 8.9. Reliability of the evidence
    10. 8.10. Reasons for decision
    11. 8.11. Constitutionality of the process

APPENDIX A - THE RULES OF EVIDENCE AND THE CANADA EVIDENCE ACT